Septic thrombophlebitis (STP) is a complex, cross-disciplinary clinical condition that combines a localized infection with a neighboring venous thrombosis. STP can occur at several possible anatomic sites, such as dural sinuses, jugular vein (Lemierre syndrome), portal vein (pylephlebitis), and pelvic veins. Its high mortality in the preantibiotic era improved considerably with the introduction of modern antibiotics.
Haemostasis encompasses a set of strictly regulated actions, such as vasoconstriction, platelet activation and blood coagulation. Endothelial cells play a crucial role in all of these processes and are an integral part of the vascular response to injury resulting in thrombus formation. Healthy endothelium expresses mediators to prevent platelet activation, including prostacyclin and nitric oxide, and to inhibit coagulation, such as thrombomodulin or RNase1.
Florian Langer, Stefan Kluge, Robert Klamroth, Johannes Oldenburg
The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is causing a global pandemic of life-threatening multiorgan disease, called COVID-19. Accumulating evidence indicates that patients with COVID-19 are at significant risk of thromboembolic complications, mainly affecting the venous, but also the arterial vascular system. While the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) appears to be higher in patients requiring intensive care unit support compared to those admitted to general wards, recent autopsy findings and data on the timing of VTE diagnosis relative to hospitalization clearly suggest that thromboembolic events also contribute to morbidity and mortality in the ambulatory setting. In addition to a severe hypercoagulable state caused by systemic inflammation and viral endotheliitis, some patients with advanced COVID-19 may develop a coagulopathy, which meets established laboratory criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation, but is not typically associated with relevant bleeding. Similar to other medical societies, the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research has issued empirical recommendations on initiation, dosing, and duration of pharmacological VTE prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients.